Get ready for macOS Big Sur. MacOS Big Sur takes the most advanced operating system in the world to a whole new level of power and beauty, making your apps look better than ever on an all-new interface. New widget features and the new widget gallery help you deliver more value to your users. Adding intelligence to your apps with machine learning is even simpler and more extensive with new. Find out Why programmers think Mac OS X is the best operating system here. How to choose the best Mac for app development.
macOS Big Sur takes the most advanced operating system in the world to a whole new level of power and beauty, making your apps look better than ever on an all-new interface. New widget features and the new widget gallery help you deliver more value to your users. Adding intelligence to your apps with machine learning is even simpler and more extensive with new tools, models, training capabilities, and APIs. You can create more powerful Mac versions of your iPad apps with Mac Catalyst. And you can now easily bring your extensions to Safari — and to the App Store.
macOS Big Sur brings a new design that’s been finely tuned for the powerful features that make a Mac a Mac. Core features, such as the menu bar and Dock, take advantage of the large Mac display, with translucent backings and spacious pull-down menus. The new Control Center, designed just for Mac, provides quick access to controls while keeping the menu bar clutter-free. Notification Center puts recent notifications and powerful new widgets together in a single view for at-a-glance information as you work. And a streamlined new design for apps features full-height sidebars and integrated toolbar buttons.
Easily build widgets using the WidgetKit framework and the new widget API for SwiftUI. Widgets now come in multiple sizes, and users can visit the new widget gallery to search, preview sizes, and add them to Notification Center to access important details at a glance.
With support for the popular WebExtension API, it’s even easier to bring powerful extensions to Safari. Xcode 12 even includes a porting tool to streamline the process.
The new Extensions category on the Mac App Store showcases Safari extensions, with editorial spotlights and top charts to help users discover and download great extensions from the developer community.
With macOS Big Sur, creating apps that leverage the power of machine learning is even easier and more extensive with additional tools in Core ML for model deployment, new models and training capabilities in Create ML, more APIs for vision and natural language, and improved resources for training on Mac and converting models to Core ML format.
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Create even more powerful Mac versions of your iPad apps. Apps built with Mac Catalyst now take on the new look of macOS Big Sur and help you better define the look and behavior of your apps. You can choose to turn off automatic scaling of iPad controls and layout, allowing you to precisely place every pixel on the screen. Provide full control of your app using just the keyboard, take advantage of the updated Photos picker, access more iOS frameworks, and more.
User privacy on the App Store.
Later this year, the Mac App Store will help users understand apps’ privacy practices. You’ll need to enter your privacy practice details into App Store Connect for display on your product page.
Universal App Quick Start Program
Get your apps ready for Apple Silicon Macs. Create next-generation Universal apps that take full advantage of the capabilities the new architecture has to offer. Get all the tools, resources, support, and even access to prototype hardware you’ll need. You can also watch a collection of videos from WWDC20 to help you get started.
Tools and resources
Use Xcode 12 beta and these resources to build apps for macOS Big Sur.
|Initial release||September 24, 1986; 34 years ago|
|Operating system||Classic Mac OS|
|Type||Software development tool|
|Website||Official MPW website at the Wayback Machine (archived May 14, 2011)|
Macintosh Programmer's Workshop or MPW, is a software development environment for the Classic Mac OSoperating system, written by Apple Computer. For Macintosh developers, it was one of the primary tools for building applications for System 7.x and Mac OS 8.x and 9.x. Initially MPW was available for purchase as part of Apple's professional developers program, but Apple made it a free download after it was superseded by CodeWarrior. On Mac OS X it was replaced by the Project BuilderIDE, which eventually became Xcode.
MPW provided a command line environment and tools, including 68k and PowerPC assemblers as well as Pascal, C and C++compilers. The shell environment is somewhat similar to Unix shells in design, but is designed around the Macintosh's character set and GUI, replacing the usual terminal environment with a 'worksheet' interface, allowing the user to select and run arbitrary sections of a shell script or to redo commands with no retyping. In addition, command line tools were commonly provided with a somewhat standardized graphical interface named Commando that provided limited access to the command line capabilities of the program. The debuggers were not integrated into MPW like most IDEs of today but the language compilers supported the symbolic debugging information file format used by the debugger. MPW supported a source-level debugger called SADE (Symbolic Application Debugging Environment). SADE was not an MPW Tool, but ran as a separate application with a user interface similar to MPW.
Apple's compilers had some features that were not common on other platforms—for example, the Pascal compiler was object-oriented, while the C and C++ compilers included support for length-prefixed strings (needed for Pascal-oriented APIs).
Pascal was Apple's original preferred language for Macintosh software development, and MPW was initially released with only Pascal support. A C compiler was released with MPW 2.0. The MPW C compiler was written under contract for Apple by Greenhills. In addition, the original MPW C compiler was known for its casual and frequently humorous error messages ('we already did this function'), as well as occasionally addressing users by name. These quirks were not carried on after the PowerPC transition, when Apple replaced the originals with compilers written by Symantec. Pascal support was no longer provided by the mid-90s due to declining popularity of the language.
MPW was always targeted to a professional audience and was seldom used by hobbyist developers due to the considerable price for the package; by the time it was made freeware it had long since been superseded by offerings from Symantec and Metrowerks, as well as Apple's own development tools inherited from NeXT and distributed for free with OS X. It was also occasionally available as a wrapper environment for third-party compilers, a practice used by both Metrowerks and Absoft among others. Apple has officially discontinued further development of MPW and the last version of OS X to run it is 10.4 'Tiger', the last one to support the Classic environment. Apple maintained a web site and mailing lists that supported the software long after its discontinuation, but that site now redirects to the Xcode page.
The MPW Shell featured redirection of output to files, as well as to windows. If a file were open, the output would go to the file and to the open window. This redirection of output required significant patching out of the file system calls so that tools need not do anything special to inherit this feature: the MPW Shell did all of the work.
The MPW Shell command language was based on the Unix csh language, but was extended to support the main features of the Macintosh GUI. It had simple commands to create menus, dialogs (prompts), and new shell windows. The cursor could be controlled, and MPW scripts or tools could easily be attached to a menu item. Command key shortcuts could be specified. Window size and location could be controlled. These features were popular in commercial production environments, where complicated build and packaging processes were all controlled by elaborate scripts.
Mac Os Order
The shell had some important differences from its Unix counterparts. For instance, the classic Mac OS had nothing comparable to Unix fork(), so MPW tools were effectively called as subroutines of the shell; only one could be running at any one time, and tools could not themselves run other tools. These limitations were the inspiration for the MacRelix project, a 'Unix-like system' for classic Mac OS.
Look and feel
Functionally, a worksheet is a cross between a text editor document and an xterm window. Each worksheet window is persistently bound to a file. The user may type anything anywhere in the window, including commands, which can be executed via the keyboard's Enter key; command output appears at the insertion point. Unlike an xterm window, an MPW worksheet is always in visual editing mode and can be freely reorganized by its user. Hence a worksheet can be purely a command script or purely a text document or a mixture of the two—an integrated document describing the history, maintenance procedures and test results of a software project. The commercial BBEdit text editor retains a feature it calls 'shell worksheets' on Mac OS X. The Emacs text editor provides shell buffers, a similar feature that works across platforms.
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MPW included a version of make. Its syntax was conceptually similar to that of Unix make, but the MacRomanlong f character to indicate dependencies. More significantly, since the limitations of the shell precluded the make program from running tools itself, it had to work by composing a script of compile/link actions to be run, then delivering that to the shell for execution. While this was good enough most of the time, it precluded makefiles that could make on-the-fly decisions based on the results of a previous action.
Although not implemented as MPW tools, the package also came with several source-level debuggers through its history; SourceBug and SADE (Symbolic Application Debugging Environment) were used on MC680x0 systems, while the Power Mac Debugger (known during development as R2Db) provided both local and remote debugging services for PowerPC systems, the latter by using a server program known as a 'debugger nub' on the computer being debugged.
Writing MPW tools
MPW included a set of standard C libraries sufficient for developers to build their own MPW tools. Many Unix utilities could be ported with little change. One point of difficulty was the Mac OS newline convention, which was different from Unix. Another was the pathname separator, ':' in Mac OS, but many Unix utilities assumed '/'. Many Unix utilities also assumed pathnames would not have embedded spaces, a common practice on Macs.
For a number of years, the GNU toolchain included portability support for MPW as part of libiberty. This was used to support MPW-hosted cross-compilers used by General Magic and several other developers.
MPW was started in late 1985 by Rick Meyers, Jeff Parrish, and Dan Smith (now Dan Keller). It was going to be called the Macintosh Programmer's System, or MPS. (Notice that coincidentally the three last names start with MPS.) 'MPS ' has always been the creator signature of the MPW Shell as a result of this. Since MPW was to be the successor to the Lisa Workshop, they decided to rename it the Macintosh Programmer's Workshop. Before the arrival of MPW, Mac applications had to be cross-developed on a Lisa.
The MPW Pascal compiler is descended from the Lisa Pascal compiler. Apple's Larry Tesler worked with Niklaus Wirth to come up with Object Pascal extensions which Ken Doyle incorporated in one of the last versions of the Lisa Pascal compiler. This enabled MacApp.
Early contributors included Rick Meyers (project lead and MPW Shell command interpreter), Jeff Parrish (MPW Shell editor), Dan Smith (MPW Shell commands), Ira Ruben (assembler and many of the tools including Backup, PasMat, and more), Fred Forsman (Make, Print, SADE, and assembler macro processor), Al Hoffman (Pascal compiler) Roger Lawrence (Pascal and C compilers, including the error messages), Ken Friedenbach (linker), Johan Strandberg (Rez, DeRez, RezDet), Steve Hartwell (C libraries), and Dan Allen (MacsBug, editor). The Apple Numerics Group also contributed math libraries.
MPW 1.0 was completed on September 24, 1986. A shell memory leak was fixed on October 10, 1986, and MPW 1.0.1 was born. MPW 2.0 was completed on July 20, 1987, and MPW 3.0 was done November 30, 1988. MPW 3.1, 3.2, and 3.3 came in the next few years. MPW 3.4 was completed July 14, 1995, and MPW 3.5 was done December 17, 1999. MPW 3.6 was under development when work was halted in late 2001.
During MPW's twilight years, Greg Branche supported MPW unofficially through the Apple MPW-dev mailing list. The list, and the lists.apple.com server that hosted it, was planned to be shut down January 17, 2014, a decision that was later reversed.
MPW can still be used to develop for Mac OS X, but support is limited to Carbon applications for PowerPC-based computers. To develop Mac OS X applications based on other technologies, one must use either Xcode or another OS X-compatible development environment. MPW also included a version control system called Projector; this has been superseded by modern version control systems and is no longer supported in Mac OS X.
- ^Webster, Bruce (February 1986). 'Programming Tool and the Atari ST'. BYTE. p. 331. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- ^'Re: [Humor ] Old MPW C error messages'. Archived from the original on 2014-05-28. Retrieved 2014-05-27.
- ^MPW C Error Messages, May 15, 1994 - Robert Lentz
- ^'Re: Will the last one to leave please turn off the lights?'. Archived from the original on 2014-05-28. Retrieved 2014-05-27.
- ^'MacRelix Origins'.
- ^Short for RISC 2-machine Debugger; http://www.mactech.com/articles/develop/issue_17/Falk_Topping_final.html
- ^'Will the last one to leave please turn off the lights?'. Archived from the original on 2014-05-28. Retrieved 2014-05-27.
- ^'Reprieve!'. Archived from the original on 2014-02-14. Retrieved 2014-05-27.
- Official MPW website at the Wayback Machine (archived May 14, 2011)
- MPW 3.5 Download from Apple FTP Mirror & Updates