Framework For Mac Os X

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The OS X frameworks provide the interfaces you need to write software for Mac. Some of these frameworks contain simple sets of interfaces while others contain multiple subframeworks. Where applicable, the tables in this appendix list the key prefixes used by the classes, methods, functions, types, or constants of the framework. You should avoid using any of the specified prefixes in your own symbol names.

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Framework

System Frameworks

A2A I can’t say there’s a best one, as there are so many and they run from lightweight (Tkinter) to enterprise-ready (PyQt) and mobile-oriented (Kivy). I’d recommend trying Tkinter first to see if it provides what you need. If not, then look at wx.

NOV Framework Overview NOV provides the solid foundations that are needed for a presentation layer that is 100% identical on Windows (WinForms and WPF), Silverlight and Mac OS X (MonoMac and Xamarin.Mac). Carbon is one of Apple’s C-based application programming interfaces (APIs) for macOS (formerly Mac OS X), the operating system that powers Macintosh computers. Carbon provided a good degree of backward compatibility for programs that ran on Mac OS 8 and 9.Developers could use the Carbon APIs to port their “classic” Mac software to the Mac OS X platform with little effort, compared to. R for macOS Developers This is the new home for experimental binaries and documentation related to R for macOS. To learn more about the R software or download released versions, please visit www.r-project.org. All software on this page is strictly experimental and subject to acceptance of the supplied R license agreement and the disclaimer at the end of the page. Running Mono applications on macOS. Running applications on macOS is very similar to linux systems, from the terminal: mono myprogram.exe For GTK# applications, it’s easiest to run them the same way but using xterm from X11.app. A macOS specific Mono launcher.

Table A-1 describes the frameworks located in the /System/Library/Frameworks directory and lists the first version of OS X in which each became available.

Table A-1 System frameworks

Name

First available

Prefixes

Description

Accelerate.framework

10.3

cblas, vDSP, vv

Umbrella framework for vector-optimized operations. See Accelerate Framework.

Accounts.framework

10.8

AC

Provides access to user accounts stored in the Accounts database. See Accounts Framework Reference.

AddressBook.framework

10.2

AB, ABV

Provides access to the Address Book, which is a centralized database of user contact information. Apps that target OS X v10.11 or greater should use Contacts.framework.

AGL.framework

10.0

AGL, GL, glm, GLM, glu, GLU

Contains Carbon interfaces for OpenGL. See AGL Reference.

AppKit.framework

10.0

NS

Contains classes and methods for the Cocoa user-interface layer. In general, link to Cocoa.framework instead of this framework. See AppKit Framework Reference.

AppKitScripting.framework

10.0

N/A

Deprecated. Use AppKit.framework instead.

AppleScriptKit.framework

10.0

ASK

Contains interfaces for creating AppleScript plug-ins.

AppleScriptObjC.framework

10.6

NS

Contains Objective-C extensions for creating AppleScript plug-ins.

ApplicationServices.framework

10.0

AE, AX, ATSU, CG, CT, LS, PM, QD, UT

Umbrella framework for several app-level services. See Application Services Framework.

AudioToolbox.framework

10.0

AU, AUMIDI

Contains interfaces for getting audio stream data, routing audio signals through audio units, converting between audio formats, and playing back music. See Audio Toolbox Framework Reference.

AudioUnit.framework

10.0

AU

Contains interfaces for defining Core Audio plug-ins. See Audio Unit Framework Reference.

AudioVideoBridging.framework

10.8

AVB

Supports Audio Video Bridging (AVB) and implements the IEEE P1722.1 draft standard.

Automator.framework

10.4

AM

Umbrella framework for creating Automator plug-ins. See Automator Framework.

AVFoundation.framework

10.7

AV

Provides interfaces for playing, recording, inspecting, and editing audiovisual media. See AVFoundation Audio Functions.

AVKit.framework

10.9

AV

Provides API for media playback including user controls, chapter navigation, subtitles, and closed captioning. See AV Kit Framework Reference

CalendarStore.framework

10.5

Cal

Deprecated. Use Event Kit instead. See Event Kit.

Carbon.framework

10.0

HI, HR, ICA, ICD, Ink, Nav, OSA, PM, SFS,SR

Umbrella framework for Carbon-level services. See Carbon Framework.

CFNetwork.framework

10.3

CF

Contains interfaces for network communication using HTTP, sockets, and Bonjour. See CFNetwork Framework Reference.

CloudKit.framework

10.10

CK

Provides a conduit for moving data between your app and iCloud that can be used for all types of data. It also gives you control of when transfers occur. See CloudKit Quick Start or CloudKit Framework Reference.

Cocoa.framework

10.0

NS

Wrapper for including the Cocoa frameworks AppKit.framework, Foundation.framework, and CoreData.framework.

Collaboration.framework

10.5

CB

Contains interfaces for managing identity information. See Collaboration Framework Reference.

Contacts.framework

10.11

CN

Provides access to the Contacts store, which is a centralized database of user contact information. See Contacts Framework Reference.

CoreAudio.framework

10.0

Audio

Contains the hardware abstraction layer interface for manipulating audio. See Core Audio Framework Reference.

CoreBluetooth.framework

10.10

CB

Contains the classes used for communicating with Bluetooth Low Energy devices. See Core Bluetooth Framework Reference

CoreAudioKit.framework

10.4

AU

Contains Objective-C interfaces for audio unit custom views. See CoreAudioKit Framework Reference.

CoreData.framework

10.4

NS

Contains interfaces for managing your app’s data model. See Core Data Framework Reference.

CoreFoundation.framework

10.0

CF

Provides fundamental software services, including abstractions for common data types, string utilities, collection utilities, plug-in support, resource management, preferences, and XML parsing. See Core Foundation Framework Reference.

CoreGraphics.framework

10.0

CG

Contains the Quartz interfaces for creating graphic content and rendering that content to the screen. See Core Graphics Framework Reference.

CoreImage.framework

10.4

CI

An image processing and analysis technology designed to provide near real-time processing for still and video images. See Core Image Programming Guide.

CoreLocation.framework

10.6

CL

Provides interfaces for determining the geographical location of a computer. See Core Location Framework Reference.

CoreMedia.framework

10.7

CM

Contains low-level interfaces for for managing and and playing audio-visual media in an app. See Core Media Framework Reference.

CoreMediaIO.framework

10.7

CMIO

Contains interfaces of the Device Abstraction Layer (DAL) used for creating plug-ins that can access media hardware.

CoreMIDI.framework

10.0

MIDI

Contains utilities for implementing MIDI client programs. See Core MIDI Framework Reference.

CoreMIDIServer.framework

10.0

MIDI

Deprecated in OS X v10.6. Use CoreMIDI.framework instead.

CoreServices.framework

10.0

CF, DCS, MD, SK, WS

Umbrella framework for system-level services. See Core Services Framework.

CoreText.framework

10.5

CT

Contains the interfaces for performing text layout and display. See Core Text Reference Collection.

CoreVideo.framework

10.5

CV

Contains interfaces for managing video-based content. See Core Video Framework Reference.

CoreWLAN.framework

10.6

CW

Contains interfaces for managing wireless networks. See CoreWLAN Framework Reference.

CryptoTokenKit.framework

10.10

TK

Contains interface for using smart cards. See CryptoTokenKit Framework Reference.

DirectoryService.framework

10.0

ds

Deprecated in OS X v10.6. Use OpenDirectory.framework instead.

DiscRecording.framework

10.2

DR

Contains interfaces for burning data to CDs and DVDs. See Disc Recording Framework Reference.

DiscRecordingUI.framework

10.2

DR

Contains the user interface layer for interacting with users during the burning of CDs and DVDs. See Disc Recording UI Framework Reference.

DiskArbitration.framework

10.4

DA

Contains interfaces for getting information related to local and remote volumes. See Disk Arbitration Framework Reference.

DrawSprocket.framework

10.0

DSp

Contains the game sprocket component for drawing content to the screen.

DVComponentGlue.framework

10.0

IDH

Contains interfaces for communicating with digital video devices, such as video cameras.

DVDPlayback.framework

10.3

DVD

Contains interfaces for embedding DVD playback features into your app. See DVD Playback Framework Reference.

EventKit.framework

10.8

EK

Provides an interface for accessing a user’s calendar events and reminder items. See Event Kit Framework Reference.

ExceptionHandling.framework

10.0

NS

Contains exception-handling classes for Cocoa apps. See Exception Handling Framework Reference.

FinderSync.framework

10.10

FI

Provides API for enhancing the Finder’s user interface by adding badges, shortcut menu items, and toolbar buttons. See Finder Sync Framework Reference

ForceFeedback.framework

10.2

FF

Contains interfaces for communicating with force feedback–enabled devices. See Force Feedback Framework Reference.

Foundation.framework

10.0

NS

Contains the classes and methods for the Cocoa Foundation layer. If you are creating a Cocoa app, linking to the Cocoa framework is preferable. See Foundation Framework Reference.

FWAUserLib.framework

10.2

FWA

Contains interfaces for communicating with FireWire-based audio devices. See FWAUserLib.h Reference.

GameController.framework

10.9

GC

A collection of classes for discovering and interacting with connected game controllers. See Game Controller Programming Guide

GameKit.framework

10.8

GK

Provides APIs that allow your app to participate in Game Center. See Game Kit Framework Reference.

GLKit.framework

10.8

GLK

Provides functions and classes that reduce the effort required to create new shader-based apps or to port existing apps that rely on fixed-function vertex or fragment processing provided by earlier versions of OpenGL ES or OpenGL. See GLKit Framework Reference.

GLUT.framework

10.0

glut, GLUT

Contains interfaces for the OpenGL Utility Toolkit, which provides a platform-independent interface for managing windows.

GSS.framework

10.7

gss

Contains interfaces for Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI).

Hypervisor.framework

10.10

hv

Allows virtualization vendors to build virtualization solutions on top of OS X without needing to deploy third-party kernel extensions (KEXTs). See Hypervisor Framework Reference.

ICADevices.framework

10.3

ICD

Contains low-level interfaces for communicating with digital devices such as scanners and cameras. See Carbon Framework.

ImageCaptureCore.framework

10.6

IC

Contains Objective-C interfaces for communicating with digital devices such as scanners and cameras.

ImageIO.framework

10.4

CGImage

Contains interfaces for importing and exporting image data.

IMServicePlugIn.framework

10.7

IM

Contains interfaces for building third-party plug-ins for Chat services. Umbrella framework for IMServicePlugInSupport.framework.

InputMethodKit.framework

10.5

IMK

Contains interfaces for developing new input methods, which are modules that handle text entry for complex languages. See Input Method Kit Framework Reference.

InstallerPlugins.framework

10.4

IFX

Contains interfaces for creating plug-ins that run during software installation sessions. See Installer JavaScript Reference.

InstantMessage.framework

10.4

FZ, IM

Deprecated in OS X v10.9. Do not use.

IOBluetooth.framework

10.2

IO

Contains interfaces for communicating with Bluetooth devices.

IOBluetoothUI.framework

10.2

IO

Contains the user interface layer for interacting with users manipulating Bluetooth devices.

IOKit.framework

10.0

IO, IOBSD, IOCF

Contains the main interfaces for creating user-space device drivers and for interacting with kernel-resident drivers from user space. See IOKitLib.h Reference.

IOSurface.framework

10.6

IO

Contains low-level interfaces for sharing graphics surfaces between apps. See IOSurface Framework Reference.

JavaFrameEmbedding.framework

10.5

N/A

Contains interfaces for embedding Java frames in Objective-C code.

JavaScriptCore.framework

10.5

JS

Contains the library and resources for executing JavaScript code within an HTML page. (Prior to OS X v10.5, this framework was part of WebKit.framework. See JavaScriptCore Framework Reference.

JavaVM.framework

10.0

JAWT, JDWP, JMM, JNI, JVMDI, JVMPI, JVMTI

Deprecated in OS X v10.7. Use Oracle Java instead.

Kerberos.framework

10.0

GSS, KL, KRB, KRB5

Contains interfaces for using the Kerberos network authentication protocol.

Kernel.framework

10.0

numerous

Contains the interfaces for kernel-extension development, including Mach, BSD, libkern, I/O Kit, and the various families built on top of I/O Kit. See Kernel Framework Reference.

LatentSemanticMapping.framework

10.5

LSM

Contains interfaces for classifying text based on latent semantic information. See Latent Semantic Mapping Reference.

LDAP.framework

10.0

N/A

Do not use.

LocalAuthentication.framework

10.10

LA

Contains API for requesting authentication from users using specified policies. See Local Authentication Framework Reference

MapKit.framework

10.9

MK

Provides classes and protocols for embedding maps into the windows and views of your apps. Includes support for annotations, overlays, and reverse-geocoding lookups. See Map Kit Framework Reference

MediaAccessibility.framework

10.9

MA

Provides API to access user preferences for captions that can accompany media, such as closed captioning. See Media Accessibility Framework Reference

MediaLibrary.framework

10.9

ML

Provides a read-only data model representing a user’s collections of images, audio, and video. See Media Library Framework Reference

Message.framework

10.0

AS, MF, PO, POP, RSS, TOC, UR, URL

Contains Cocoa extensions for mail delivery.

Metal.framework

10.11

MTL

Provides GPU-accelerated 3D graphics rendering and>

MetalKit.framework

10.11

MTK

Contains functions and classes that reduce the effort required to create a Metal application. See MetalKit Framework Reference and MetalKit Functions Reference.

ModelIO.framework

10.11

MDL

Provides classes that support import, export, and editing of 3D model assets and related resources. See ModelIO Framework Reference.

MultipeerConnectivity.framework

10.10

MC

Contains API for finding and communicating with services provided by nearby devices using infrastructure Wi-Fi networks, peer-to-peer Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth personal area networks. See Multipeer Connectivity Framework Reference.

NetFS.framework

10.6

NetFS

Contains interfaces for working with network file systems.

NetworkExtension.framework

10.11

NE, NW

Provides support for configuring and controlling Virtual Private Network (VPN) tunnels. See Network Extension Framework Reference.

NotificationCenter.framework

10.10

NC, NS

Contains the interfaces for creating and managing extensions in the Today view of the Notification Center. See Notification Center Framework Reference

OpenAL.framework

10.4

AL

Contains the interfaces for OpenAL, a cross-platform 3D audio delivery library.

OpenCL.framework

10.6

CL, cl

Contains the interfaces for distributing general-purpose computational tasks across the available GPUs and CPUs of a computer. See OpenCL Programming Guide for Mac.

OpenDirectory.framework

10.6

OD

Contains Objective-C interfaces for managing Open Directory information. See Open Directory Programming Guide.

OpenGL.framework

10.0

CGL, GL, glu, GLU

Contains the interfaces for OpenGL, which is a cross-platform 2D and 3D graphics rendering library. See OpenGL Programming Guide for Mac.

OSAKit.framework

10.4

OSA

Contains Objective-C interfaces for managing and executing OSA-compliant scripts from Cocoa apps.

PCSC.framework

10.0

MSC, Scard, SCARD

Contains interfaces for interacting with smart card devices.

PreferencePanes.framework

10.0

NS

Contains interfaces for implementing custom modules for the System Preferences app. See Preference Panes Framework Reference.

PubSub.framework

10.5

PS

Contains interfaces for subscribing to RSS and Atom feeds. See Publication Subscription Framework Reference.

QTKit.framework

10.4

QT

Deprecated in OS X v10.9. Use AVFoundation.framework instead.

Quartz.framework

10.4

GF, PDF, QC, QCP

Umbrella framework for Quartz services. See Quartz Framework.

QuartzCore.framework

10.4

CA,CI, CV

Contains the interfaces for Core Image, Core Animation, and Core Video. See Quartz Core Framework Reference.

QuickLook.framework

10.5

QL

Contains interfaces for generating thumbnail previews of documents. See Quick Look Framework Reference for Mac.

QuickTime.framework

10.0

N/A

Deprecated in OS X v10.9. Use AVFoundation.framework and AVKit.framework instead.

Ruby.framework

10.5

N/A

Contains interfaces for the Ruby scripting language.

SceneKit.framework

10.8

SCN

Provides a high-level, Objective-C API to efficiently load, manipulate, and render 3D scenes in an app. See SceneKit Framework Reference.

ScreenSaver.framework

10.0

N/A

Contains interfaces for writing screen savers. See Screen Saver Framework Reference.

Scripting.framework

10.0

NS

Deprecated. Use Foundation.framework instead.

ScriptingBridge.framework

10.5

SB

Contains interfaces for running scripts from Objective-C code. See Scripting Bridge Framework Reference.

Security.framework

10.0

CSSM, Sec

Contains interfaces for system-level user authentication and authorization. See Security Framework Reference.

SecurityFoundation.framework

10.3

Sec

Contains Cocoa interfaces for authorizing users. See Security Foundation Framework Reference.

SecurityInterface.framework

10.3

PSA, SF

Contains the user interface layer for authorizing users in Cocoa apps. See Security Interface Framework Reference.

ServiceManagement.framework

10.6

SM

Contains interfaces for loading, unloading and managing launchd services. See Service Management Framework Reference.

Social.framework

10.8

SL

Provides an API for sending requests to supported social networking services that can perform operations on behalf of users. See Social Framework Reference.

SpriteKit.framework

10.9

SK

Provides API for animating arbitrary textured images, or sprites. It includes sound playback, a physics engine, and a rendering loop. See SpriteKit Programming Guide

StoreKit.framework

10.7

SK

Supports requesting payment from a user to purchase additional functionality or content from the Mac App Store. See Store Kit Framework Reference.

SyncServices.framework

10.4

ISync

Deprecated in OS X v10.7. Use Contacts.framework or Calendar.framework instead.

System.framework

10.0

N/A

Do not use.

SystemConfiguration.framework

10.0

SC

Contains interfaces for accessing network configuration and reachability information. See System Configuration Framework Reference.

Tcl.framework

10.3

Tcl

Contains interfaces for accessing the system’s Tcl interpreter from an app.

Tk.framework

10.4

Tk

Contains interfaces for accessing the system’s Tk toolbox from an app.

TWAIN.framework

10.2

TW

Contains interfaces for accessing TWAIN-compliant image-scanning hardware.

vecLib.framework

10.0

N/A

Deprecated. Use Accelerate.framework instead. See Accelerate Framework.

VideoDecodeAcceleration.framework

10.7

VDA

Deprecated in OS X v10.11. Use VideoToolbox.framework instead.

VideoToolbox.framework

10.8

VT

Comprises the 64-bit replacement for the QuickTime Image Compression Manager.

WebKit.framework

10.2

DOM, Web

Umbrella framework for rendering HTML content. See WebKit Framework.

XgridFoundation.framework

10.4

XG

Deprecated in OS X v10.8.

Contains interfaces for connecting to and managing computing cluster software.

OS X contains several umbrella frameworks for major areas of functionality. Umbrella frameworks group several related frameworks into a larger framework that can be included in your project. When writing software, link your project against the umbrella framework; do not try to link directly to any of its subframeworks. The following sections describe the contents of the umbrella frameworks in OS X.

Accelerate Framework

Table A-2 lists the subframeworks of the Accelerate framework (Accelerate.framework). If you are developing apps for earlier versions of OS X, vecLib.framework is available as a standalone framework.

Table A-2 Subframeworks of the Accelerate framework

Subframework

Description

vecLib.framework

Contains vector-optimized interfaces for performing math, big-number, and DSP calculations, among others.

vImage.framework

Contains vector-optimized interfaces for manipulating image data.

Application Services Framework

Table A-3 lists the subframeworks of the Application Services framework (ApplicationServices.framework) that are not links to top level frameworks. These frameworks provide C-based interfaces and are intended primarily for Carbon apps, although other programs can use them. The listed frameworks are available in all versions of OS X unless otherwise noted.

Table A-3 Subframeworks of the Application Services framework

Subframework

Description

ATS.framework

Deprecated in OS X v10.8. Use CoreText.framework instead.

ColorSync.framework

Contains interfaces for color matching using ColorSync.

HIServices.framework

Contains interfaces for accessibility, Internet Config, the pasteboard, the Process Manager, and the Translation Manager. Available in OS X v10.2 and later.

LangAnalysis.framework

Contains the Language Analysis Manager interfaces.

PrintCore.framework

Contains the Core Printing Manager interfaces.

QD.framework

Contains the QuickDraw interfaces.

SpeechSynthesis.framework

Contains the Speech Manager interfaces.

Automator Framework

Table A-4 lists the subframeworks of the Automator framework (Automator.framework).

Table A-4 Subframeworks of the Automator framework

Subframework

Description

MediaBrowser.framework

Contains private interfaces for managing Automator plug-ins.

Carbon Framework

Table A-5 lists the subframeworks of the Carbon framework (Carbon.framework). The listed frameworks are available in all versions of OS X unless otherwise noted.

Table A-5 Subframeworks of the Carbon framework

Subframework

Description

CarbonSound.framework

Deprecated in OS X v10.5. Use CoreAudio.framework instead.

CommonPanels.framework

Contains interfaces for displaying the Font window, Color window, and some network-related dialogs.

Help.framework

Contains interfaces for launching and searching Apple Help.

HIToolbox.framework

Deprecated in OS X v10.7. Use Cocoa.framework instead.

HTMLRendering.framework

Contains interfaces for rendering HTML content. The WebKit framework is the preferred framework for HTML rendering. See WebKit Framework.

ImageCapture.framework

Contains interfaces for capturing images from digital cameras. This framework works in conjunction with the Image Capture Devices framework (ICADevices.framework).

Ink.framework

Contains interfaces for managing pen-based input. (Ink events are defined with the Carbon Event Manager.)

NavigationServices.framework

Contains interfaces for displaying file navigation dialogs.

OpenScripting.framework

Contains interfaces for writing scripting components and interacting with those components to manipulate and execute scripts.

Print.framework

Contains the Carbon Printing Manager interfaces for displaying printing dialogs and extensions.

SecurityHI.framework

Deprecated in OS X v10.9. Use Security.framework instead.

SpeechRecognition.framework

Contains the Speech Recognition Manager interfaces.

Core Services Framework

Table A-6 lists the subframeworks of the Core Services framework (CoreServices.framework). These frameworks provide C-based interfaces and are intended primarily for Carbon apps, although other programs can use them. The listed frameworks are available in all versions of OS X unless otherwise noted.

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Table A-6 Subframeworks of the Core Services framework

Subframework

Description

AE.framework

Contains interfaces for creating and manipulating Apple events and making apps scriptable.

CarbonCore.framework

Contains interfaces for many legacy Carbon Managers. Most of the APIs in this framework are deprecated in OS X v10.8 (for more information, see Carbon Core Deprecations).

DictionaryServices.framework

Provides dictionary lookup capabilities.

FSEvents.framework

Provides a mechanism to notify clients about directories to re-scan to keep internal data structures up-to-date with the true state of the file system.

LaunchServices.framework

Contains interfaces for launching apps.

Metadata.framework

Contains interfaces for managing Spotlight metadata.

OSServices.framework

Contains interfaces for Open Transport and many hardware-related legacy Carbon managers.

SearchKit.framework

Contains interfaces for the Search Kit.

Quartz Framework

Table A-7 lists the subframeworks of the Quartz framework (Quartz.framework).

Table A-7 Subframeworks of the Quartz framework

Subframework

Description

ImageKit.framework

Contains Objective-C interfaces for finding, browsing, and displaying images.

PDFKit.framework

Contains Objective-C interfaces for displaying and managing PDF content.

QuartzComposer.framework

Contains Objective-C interfaces for playing Quartz Composer compositions in an app.

QuartzFilters.framework

Contains Objective-C interfaces for managing and applying filter effects to a graphics context.

QuickLookUI.framework

Contains Objective-C interfaces for creating and managing a Quick Look preview panel, which is a UI object that displays preview items.

WebKit Framework

Table A-8 lists the subframeworks of the WebKit framework (WebKit.framework).

Framework For Mac Os X
Table A-8 Subframeworks of the WebKit framework

Subframework

Description

WebCore.framework

Contains the library and resources for rendering HTML content in an HTMLView control.

Xcode Frameworks

Xcode and all of its supporting tools and libraries reside in a portable directory structure. This directory structure makes it possible to have multiple versions of Xcode installed on a single system or to have Xcode installed on a portable hard drive that you plug in to your computer when you need to do development. This portability means that the frameworks required by the developer tools are installed in the <Xcode>/Library/Frameworks directory, where <Xcode> is the path to the Xcode installation directory. Table A-9 lists the frameworks that are located in this directory.

Table A-9 Xcode frameworks

Framework

First available

Prefixes

Description

XCTest.framework

Xcode 5

XC

Interfaces for implementing unit tests in Objective-C.

System Libraries

Some specialty libraries at the BSD level are not packaged as frameworks. Instead, OS X includes many dynamic libraries in the /usr/lib directory and its subdirectories. Dynamic shared libraries are identified by their .dylib extension. Header files for the libraries are located in the /usr/include directory.

OS X uses symbolic links to point to the most current version of most libraries. When linking to a dynamic shared library, use the symbolic link instead of a link to a specific version of the library. Library versions may change in future versions of OS X. If your software is linked to a specific version, that version might not always be available on the user’s system.



Copyright © 2004, 2015 Apple Inc. All Rights Reserved. Terms of Use Privacy Policy Updated: 2015-09-16

Author

Bob Savage <bobsavage@mac.com>

Python on a Macintosh running Mac OS X is in principle very similar to Python onany other Unix platform, but there are a number of additional features such asthe IDE and the Package Manager that are worth pointing out.

4.1. Getting and Installing MacPython¶

Mac OS X 10.8 comes with Python 2.7 pre-installed by Apple. If you wish, youare invited to install the most recent version of Python 3 from the Pythonwebsite (https://www.python.org). A current “universal binary” build of Python,which runs natively on the Mac’s new Intel and legacy PPC CPU’s, is availablethere.

What you get after installing is a number of things:

  • A Python3.9 folder in your Applications folder. In hereyou find IDLE, the development environment that is a standard part of officialPython distributions; and PythonLauncher, which handles double-clicking Pythonscripts from the Finder.

  • A framework /Library/Frameworks/Python.framework, which includes thePython executable and libraries. The installer adds this location to your shellpath. To uninstall MacPython, you can simply remove these three things. Asymlink to the Python executable is placed in /usr/local/bin/.

The Apple-provided build of Python is installed in/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework and /usr/bin/python,respectively. You should never modify or delete these, as they areApple-controlled and are used by Apple- or third-party software. Remember thatif you choose to install a newer Python version from python.org, you will havetwo different but functional Python installations on your computer, so it willbe important that your paths and usages are consistent with what you want to do.

IDLE includes a help menu that allows you to access Python documentation. If youare completely new to Python you should start reading the tutorial introductionin that document.

If you are familiar with Python on other Unix platforms you should read thesection on running Python scripts from the Unix shell.

4.1.1. How to run a Python script¶

Your best way to get started with Python on Mac OS X is through the IDLEintegrated development environment, see section The IDE and use the Help menuwhen the IDE is running.

If you want to run Python scripts from the Terminal window command line or fromthe Finder you first need an editor to create your script. Mac OS X comes with anumber of standard Unix command line editors, vim andemacs among them. If you want a more Mac-like editor,BBEdit or TextWrangler from Bare Bones Software (seehttp://www.barebones.com/products/bbedit/index.html) are good choices, as isTextMate (see https://macromates.com/). Other editors includeGvim (http://macvim-dev.github.io/macvim/) and Aquamacs(http://aquamacs.org/).

To run your script from the Terminal window you must make sure that/usr/local/bin is in your shell search path.

To run your script from the Finder you have two options:

  • Drag it to PythonLauncher

  • Select PythonLauncher as the default application to open yourscript (or any .py script) through the finder Info window and double-click it.PythonLauncher has various preferences to control how your script islaunched. Option-dragging allows you to change these for one invocation, or useits Preferences menu to change things globally.

4.1.2. Running scripts with a GUI¶

With older versions of Python, there is one Mac OS X quirk that you need to beaware of: programs that talk to the Aqua window manager (in other words,anything that has a GUI) need to be run in a special way. Use pythonwinstead of python to start such scripts.

With Python 3.9, you can use either python or pythonw.

4.1.3. Configuration¶

Opencv Framework Mac Os X

Python on OS X honors all standard Unix environment variables such asPYTHONPATH, but setting these variables for programs started from theFinder is non-standard as the Finder does not read your .profile or.cshrc at startup. You need to create a file~/.MacOSX/environment.plist. See Apple’s Technical Document QA1067 fordetails.

For more information on installation Python packages in MacPython, see sectionInstalling Additional Python Packages.

4.2. The IDE¶

MacPython ships with the standard IDLE development environment. A goodintroduction to using IDLE can be found athttp://www.hashcollision.org/hkn/python/idle_intro/index.html.

4.3. Installing Additional Python Packages¶

There are several methods to install additional Python packages:

  • Packages can be installed via the standard Python distutils mode (pythonsetup.pyinstall).

  • Many packages can also be installed via the setuptools extensionor pip wrapper, see https://pip.pypa.io/.

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4.4. GUI Programming on the Mac¶

There are several options for building GUI applications on the Mac with Python.

PyObjC is a Python binding to Apple’s Objective-C/Cocoa framework, which isthe foundation of most modern Mac development. Information on PyObjC isavailable from https://pypi.org/project/pyobjc/.

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The standard Python GUI toolkit is tkinter, based on the cross-platformTk toolkit (https://www.tcl.tk). An Aqua-native version of Tk is bundled with OSX by Apple, and the latest version can be downloaded and installed fromhttps://www.activestate.com; it can also be built from source.

wxPython is another popular cross-platform GUI toolkit that runs natively onMac OS X. Packages and documentation are available from https://www.wxpython.org.

PyQt is another popular cross-platform GUI toolkit that runs natively on MacOS X. More information can be found athttps://riverbankcomputing.com/software/pyqt/intro.

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4.5. Distributing Python Applications on the Mac¶

The standard tool for deploying standalone Python applications on the Mac ispy2app. More information on installing and using py2app can be foundat http://undefined.org/python/#py2app.

4.6. Other Resources¶

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The MacPython mailing list is an excellent support resource for Python users anddevelopers on the Mac:

Another useful resource is the MacPython wiki: