Commandos For Mac Os

admin 12/13/2021

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This is a complete A- Z index of all Mac commands and the terminal events associated with those commands. We have compiled this list by using official sources and have explained more clearly and elaborately about each of them. We have also added two additional columns specifying whether or not the command is an inbuilt system one. The final column also displays the Mac version support for each of these commands.

IMPORTANT: If you are not an advanced user and have no knowledge on how to use the terminal commands, please do not try to experiment. These are meant for medium and advanced users ONLY.

Mac Terminal Commands – A to Z

Command

InBuilt

Command Action and Event

All

alias

Yes

Creation of a Alias for current User

Yes

alloc

No

Free Memory is Listed

Yes

apropos

No

String search in What is database

NA

awk

No

Scan and overwrite Text inside file and files

NA

basename

No

Change full path name to path name

NA

bash

No

Bourne-Again Shell

NA

bg

Yes

Send to background

Yes

bind

Yes

Read line Key is displayed

Yes

bless

No

Assign Boot and start-up options

NA

break

Yes

Exit a redundant loop

Yes

builtin

Yes

Execute a built in shell command

Yes

bzip2

No

Compress and decompress a file

Yes

cal

No

The calendar is displayed

Yes

caller

Yes

Subroutine call context is returned

Yes

case

Yes

Conditional statement

Yes

cat

No

Append and Display file content

Yes

cd

Yes

Change current Directory

Yes

chflags

No

Change flags

NA

chgrp

No

Modify Group Ownership

NA

chmod

No

Change group permissions

NA

chown

No

Modify File owner and permissions

NA

chroot

No

Execute a command using another root directory

NA

cksum

No

Print and display checksum

NA

clear

No

Clear current terminal screen contents

NA

cmp

No

Simply compares two files

NA

comm

No

Line by line comparison of two sorted lines

Yes

command

Yes

Run or Execute a command

Yes

complete

Yes

Edit or modify completion of a command

Yes

continue

Yes

Resume a loop

Yes

cp

No

Copy Command

NA

cron

No

Run or Execute a prescheduled command

NA

crontab

No

Schedule command for execution after an assigned time

NA

csplit

No

Split a file into context-determined pieces

NA

curl

No

Upload or download data from a server

NA

cut

No

Cut a file into parts

Yes

date

No

Display or modify date time

Yes

dc

No

Display Desk Calculator

NA

dd

No

(Copy a file) Data Dump

NA

declare

Yes

Declare and assign attributes for a variable

Yes

defaults

No

Set visual preference options for hidden files

NA

df

No

Show unused disk space

Yes

diff

No

Show difference between two files

Yes

diff3

No

Show difference between three files

NA

dig

No

Command to lookup DNS details

NA

dirname

No

Convert full path name to path

NA

dirs

Yes

Display cached directories

Yes

diskutil

No

Disk utility command

Yes

disown

Yes

Remove a job from current session

Yes

ditto

No

Same as copy command

Yes

dot_clean

No

Remove dots and underscores from a context files

NA

drutil

No

Disk drive utility command

NA

dscacheutil

No

Flush DNS or cache

NA

dscl

No

Command-line utility for directory service

Yes

dseditgroup

No

Manage groups and users

Yes

dsenableroor

No

Command to enable root access for a terminal

NA

dsmemberutil

No

Show groups and users rights

NA

du

No

File space usage estimation

NA

echo

Yes

Display an entered message on the screen

Yes

ed

No

A text editor program

Yes

enable

Yes

Enable or disable system shell commands

Yes

env

No

Display or Modify environment variables

Yes

eval

Yes

Evaluate one or more commands or arguments

Yes

exec

Yes

Execute command

Yes

exit

Yes

Exit shell

Yes

expand

No

Expand a Tab

NA

expect

No

Pre assigned dialogue exchange for interactive programs

NA

export

Yes

Assign environment variable

Yes

expr

No

Evaluate an expression or set of expressions

Yes

fc

No

Fix command

NA

fdisk

No

Format disk command

NA

fg

Yes

Bring a job to front

Yes

file

No

Analyse file type

Yes

find

No

File search matching requested criteria

NA

fmt

No

Reformat Text in a paragraph

NA

fold

No

Wrap text to automatically adjust with working area

NA

for

Yes

Simple Loop command

Yes

fs_usage

No

File system display usage

Yes

fsactl

No

Enable or disable ACL support for File System

NA

fsck

No

Check and repair file systems

NA

ftp

No

FTP manager

NA

getfileinfo

No

Get file attributes

Yes

getopts

Yes

Parse the positional parameters

Yes

goto

No

Jump to an assigned point and then continue program execution

NA

grep

No

Search file with a certain pattern

NA

groups

No

Display a user’s group name

NA

gzip

No

Compress and decompress a file

Yes

halt

No

Shutdown and Restart the system

NA

hash

Yes

Refresh command cache and path names

Yes

hdiutil

No

Hard drive interface Utility Tool

Yes

head

No

Print first line from a text file

Yes

history

Yes

History Command

Yes

hostname

No

Display or modify System name

NA

iconv

No

Convert character set of file(s)

NA

id

No

Display user and group IDs

Yes

if

Yes

Conditional Command statement

Yes

info

No

Display help information

NA

install

No

Copy and assign attributes of a file

Yes

ipconfig

No

Configure network attributes and assign values

NA

jobs

Yes

List all currently active jobs

Yes

join

No

Join command

NA

kextfind

No

List the kernel extension

NA

kickstart

No

Configure and set Apple Remote Desktop properties

NA

kill

No

Terminate a process directly

Yes

l

No

List file in original long format

NA

last

No

Indicate last login information of a users and additional info

NA

launchctl

No

Launch daemons or agents

NA

less

No

Display output on screen accommodating data per window

NA

let

Yes

Evaluate an expression or set of expressions

Yes

lipo

No

Convert binary format

Yes

ll

No

List file in original long format, also display hidden files

Yes

ln

No

Interlink files

NA

local

Yes

Assign local variable

Yes

locate

No

Find a file or files

Yes

login

No

log-in your system

NA

logname

No

Display current users login name

NA

logout

Yes

Exit login shell

Yes

lpr

No

Print file or files

Yes

lprm

No

Remove queued print jobs

Yes

lpstat

No

Printer info and current status

Yes

ls

No

List a file information

NA

lsof

No

List currently opened files

NA

lsregister

No

Reset Launch Service database

NA

man

No

Display Help manual

Yes

mdfind

No

Spotlight search command

Yes

mdutil

No

Spotlight search command utility

Yes

mkdir

No

Create new directory

Yes

mkfifo

No

Build FIFOs

Yes

more

No

Display output data one screen at one time

NA

mount

No

Mount a file system

NA

mv

No

Cut or rename directories or files

NA

nano

No

Bring up text editor

Yes

net

No

Configure network resources

NA

netstat

No

Display network information

NA

networksetup

No

Assign network attributes

Yes

nice

No

Set command priority

NA

nohup

No

Hang-up a command

NA

ntfs.util

No

NTFS utility command

Yes

onintr

No

Control shell action

NA

open

No

Open up a file or location

NA

osacomplie

No

Command to Compile an Apple script

NA

osasdript

No

Execute an AppleScript

NA

passwd

No

Modify user password directly

Yes

paste

No

Merge lines from two or more files

Yes

pbcopy

No

Copy the data to clipboard

NA

pbpaste

No

Paste the data from Clipboard

NA

ping

No

Check a network connection

NA

pkgutil

No

Display or change Installed packages info

NA

plutil

No

Property list command utility

Yes

pmset

No

Configure Power Management settings

Yes

popd

Yes

Restore previous value of current directory

Yes

pr

No

Modify Text files to print

Yes

printenv

No

Display all environment variables

Yes

printf

Yes

Print command

Yes

ps

No

Display Process status

Yes

pushd

No

Save and change current directory

NA

pwd

Yes

Print currently Working Directory

Yes

quota

No

Display disk limitation and usage

Yes

rcp

No

Copy files across machines/systems

Yes

read

Yes

Read first line from an output file

Yes

readonly

Yes

Assign read only attribute to a file/directory

Yes

reboot

Yes

Reboot a system

Yes

return

Yes

Exit Function

Yes

rev

No

Reverse file lines

NA

rm

No

Remove file(s)

NA

rmdir

No

Remove directory(ies)

Yes

rpm

No

Bring up Remote Package Manager tool

Yes

rsync

No

Remotely copy a file

NA

say

No

Text to speech conversion

NA

screen

No

Manage Multiplex terminal and run remote shells via ssh

NA

screencapture

No

Capture the screen image

Yes

sdiff

No

Merge or modify two files

Yes

security

No

Configure security options for a system

Yes

sed

No

Stream Editor Utility

NA

select

Yes

Display list of Items

Yes

set

Yes

Set shell variable

Yes

setfile

No

Set file attributes

NA

shift

Yes

Shift positional parameters

Yes

shopt

Yes

Configure shell options

Yes

shutdown

No

Shutdown/restart Mac OS X

NA

sleep

No

Sleep after an assigned time frame

Yes

softwareupdate

No

Software Update Command

Yes

sort

No

Sort the text files

Yes

source

Yes

Execute command from file

Yes

split

No

Split files into like sized pieces

NA

stop

No

Stop a process or currently running job

NA

su

No

Substitute a user identity

Yes

sudo

No

Execute command as some other user

Yes

sum

No

Print checksum value for a file

NA

suspend

Yes

Suspend shell execution

Yes

sw_vers

No

Print Mac Operating System version

NA

system_profiler

No

Report a system configuration

Yes

tail

No

Display the last lines from a file

NA

tar

No

Archiver Utility

Yes

tcpdump

No

Network Traffic dump

NA

tee

No

Redirect multiple file output

NA

test

Yes

Conditional evaluation

Yes

textutil

No

Modify Text file formats

NA

time

No

Calculate Program Resource Usage

Yes

times

Yes

Print shell along with shell process time

Yes

top

No

Display process related information

Yes

touch

No

Change the file timestamps info

Yes

tr

No

Modify Characters or delete them

NA

traceroute

No

Display Trace Route path to assigned host name

NA

trap

Yes

Execute command when shell receives signal

Yes

tty

No

Print terminal filename on stdin

NA

type

Yes

Describe command name and type

Yes

ufs.util

No

Mount or unmount a UFS file system

NA

ulimit

Yes

Limit system resources usage

Yes

unalias

Yes

Delete an alias

Yes

unamask

No

Mask User file creation

NA

uname

No

Print System Info

Yes

unexpand

No

Space to tab converter

Yes

uniq

No

Uniquify the files

Yes

units

No

Unit scale converter command

NA

unmount

No

Unmount a mounted device

NA

unset

Yes

Remove function or variable names

Yes

until

Yes

Loop command

Yes

uptime

No

Display System Runtime information

NA

users

No

Print all username of the current session

NA

uucp

No

Unix to Unix copy command

Yes

uudecode

No

Decode a file

NA

uuencode

No

Encode a file

NA

vi

No

Visual Text Editor

Yes

wait

Yes

Wait for process completion

Yes

whatis

No

Search what is database

NA

where

No

Report all command instances

NA

while

Yes

Loop command

Yes

who

No

Print all names of the users of the current session

NA

whoami

No

Display or Print current username and info details

NA

write

No

Send a user a message

NA

xargs

No

Execute utility by passing arguments

Yes

yes

No

Print a string value until and unless interrupted by a user

NA

Foot note: N/A – Data not available.

If you feel this list lacks any particular command which has been recently added to the Mac terminal, you can improve this article by mentioning it in the comment section.

Terminal

Hey

Terminal is Mac OS X way into the command line world. It is designed for you to typing in specific commands that you would not be able to do otherwise. This is great for customizing your Mac and unveiling hidden features. It is also a good way to destroy you system because you screwed something up.

What I have done is crawl the web look of the Top 50 Terminal commands. These commands are designed to make you make look cooler, act quicker or be generally useful. I have tried to keep commands down to one line, so they are simple and effective to use. Each item will include a description of what it does as well as an appropriate picture is necessary. Many of these commands appear as seperate posts all over the web, but never in one big list. I have tried to keep the amount of sudo commands down to a minimum as this can easily destroy your system. Especially if you go sudoing every thing. I have tried to give the best description I can, if you have a problem leave a comment and I will see if I can solve it. The list is in no particular order. Most of the commands can be reverted by replacing YES with NO and 1 with 0, the opposite. Most of these commands are Leopard compatible and many may not work on Tiger. Try them and see what happens.

1) 2D Dock


This quite a popular hack for the people running Leopard and don’t like the 3D feel. It changes the 3D dock to a flat 2D version. To enter copy and past the following code.

defaults write com.apple.dock no-glass -boolean YES
killall Dock

2) Gradient Behind A Stack Item


One of my favourite hacks that enables you to put a small gradient behind an icon. I think this should be enabled by default.

defaults write com.apple.dock mouse-over-hilte-stack -boolean YES
killall Dock

3) Add A Message To The Login Window

This little Terminal command enables you to add a message of your choice to the Login window. Pretty cool and deserved a screenshot if I new how to take on while not logged in. Warning it’s a sudo command which can be dangerous.

sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.loginwindow LoginwindowText 'Your Message'

Replace “Your Message” with the message of your choice, don’t make it to long. If you want to revert it do the following.

sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.loginwindow LoginwindowText '

4) Add An Exposè Button To The Desktop

If you have reconfigured the F9 and F10 keys to something different you may want to use exposè. This hack adds a bigish blue button onto the desktop to enable you to use exposè. Clicking on it shows all the windows from one application (F10 default), option clicking it shows all windows (F9 default).


defaults write com.apple.dock wvous-floater -bool YES
killall Dock

5) Address Book Debug Menu

If you have some trouble with Address Book it may be useful to open up the debug menu as well as this use some of the hidden features. Make sure address book is closed first before applying the code. If you want to revert it remove YES in the string.


defaults write com.apple.addressbook ABShowDebugMenu -bool YES

6) Increase Dock Magnification Size

This little hack lets you increase the size of the magnification of the dock icons. Don’t go past 512.

defaults write com.apple.dock largesize -int 512

7) Increase Desktop Icon Size

If you want massive icons on you desktop this little hack lets you increase the icons to 512 pixels x 512 pixels. This is massive, may slow down on older machines. I don’t think it goes larger than 512.

defaults write com.apple.finder DesktopViewOptions -dict IconSize -integer 512
killall Finder

8) Changing the Format Of Screen Shots

If you use the screen shot function, you may want to change the format of the images, this is not easily done normally. Where jpg is in the code you can change this to the format your want, png bmp gif etc. You need to log out and back in again, or restart for the changes to take effect.

defaults write com.apple.screencapture type jpg

9) Change The Login Picture

If you get a bored of the space picture used on the login screen, you can change it with this little bit of code. Change the file location in the second half of the string to the exact file location of your chosen picture.

defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.loginwindow DesktopPicture '/System/Library/CoreServices/Finder.app/Contents/Resources/vortex.png'

10) Change The Loading Bar In Safari To A Pie Chart


This is a Safari 3 hack, so it might not work. This changes the blue bar that goes across the address bar into a small blue pie chart. Insert false instead of true to reverse.

defaults write com.apple.Safari DebugUsePieProgressIndicator -bool true

11) Clear The Open With Menu

If you right click on a file you can open it with many applications. Sometimes your OS can get a little confused and list many applications. This is to clear this list and start again. The code below is all on one line.

/System/Library/Frameworks/CoreServices.framework/Versions/A/Frameworks/
LaunchServices.framework/Versions/A/Support/lsregister
-kill -r -domain local -domain system -domain user

12) Change The Delay When Dragging Windows In Spaces

This simple hack changes the delay time it takes to drag windows around in spaces, its currently set to 0.75

defaults write com.apple.dock workspaces-edge-delay -float 0.5

13) Disable Dashboard

If you don’t want or like the dashboard running you can disable it. Change YES to NO to enable it again.

defaults write com.apple.dashboard mcx-disabled -boolean YES
killall Dock

14) Enable Double Scroll Arrows


This little hack enables the double arrow set for up and down, left or right, to be at both ends of the scroll bar. Handy if you like the double arrows. Use System Preferences to reset.

defaults write “Apple Global Domain” AppleScrollBarVariant DoubleBoth

15) Disable Tooltips In Safari

This quick little hack for Safari that removes the tooltips you get when you hover over certain elements.

defaults write com.apple.Safari WebKitShowsURLsInToolTips 0

16) Increase The Dock Size

Command #6 enables you to change the magnification. This command enables you to change the size of the dock. Use the sliders in System Preferences to reduce this size. Don’t go larger 256.

defaults write com.apple.dock tilesize -int 256

17) Disable the Crash Dialog Box

This disables the quit dialog box when an application crashes. Type prompt to enable again.

defaults write com.apple.CrashReporter DialogType none

18) Drag A Widget Onto The Desktop


Probably one of the coolest hacks. This command enables widgets to be placed onto the desktop. Drag a widget around and press F12 to drag it onto the desktop. Repeat the process again to drag a widget back onto the dashboard. This may need you to log off or restart for it to take effect.

defaults write com.apple.dashboard devmode YES

19) Enable Debug Menu In Safari


Adding debug menus to programs is great as you can access a whole range of features. This one is for Safari.

defaults write com.apple.Safari IncludeDebugMenu 1

20) Enable The Path View In Finder


One of may favourite hacks as it lets you see the current path of the Finder window you are in. Its great if you work with a lot of windows.

defaults write com.apple.finder _FXShowPosixPathInTitle -bool YES

21) Enable Time Machine On Unsupported Drives


Another favourite hack of mine, simply because it enable Time Machine to work on unsupported drives such as a NAS. Use with caution as it is unsupported.

defaults write com.apple.systempreferences TMShowUnsupportedNetworkVolumes 1

22) Enable Web Inspector


This is a very detailed web inspector that enables you to find out specific information about a page. It is accessible through the debug menu but this enables you to use it without. You can quickly access it through right-click.

defaults write com.apple.Safari WebKitDeveloperExtras -bool true

23) Enable Debug in iCal

Another debug menu (I like debug menus) this time its for iCal. You need to restart iCal for the changes to take effect.

defaults write com.apple.iCal IncludeDebugMenu YES

24) Enable Quit In Finder


This is a very useful command for anyone who does a lot of fiddling and needs to quit Finder.

defaults write com.apple.finder QuitMenuItem -bool YES
killall Finder

25) Force Mail To Display In Plain Text

If you have problems with HTML emails or you just want emails to be displayed in plain text use the following command. You need to restart Mail for the changes to take effect. Replace with false to revert.

defaults write com.apple.mail PreferPlainText -bool TRUE

26) Increase Time Machine Backups

If you do a lot of work on you Mac, and you want time machine to back up more frequently you need to change the value. It is in seconds. The default is set to an hour which is 3600. Change this value to suit, half and hour is 1800 seconds.

sudo defaults write /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.backupd-auto StartInterval -int 1800

27) Kill A Process

Sometimes you just need a process to stop running. If you want to kill it in Terminal with out using Activity Monitor, find the process ID (In Activity Monitor) and then use the following command. Only really useful if you don’t like much clicking or are writing a program.

kill PID 478

28) Let Terminal Talk

If you are bored one day you can get Terminal to quickly talk anything back to you using the voice engine. Replace hello with anything you want.

say hello

29) Make Hidden Applications Icons Transparent


If you hide a lot of applications you can make there icons transparent in the dock. A very good visual clue.

defaults write com.apple.Dock showhidden -bool YES
killall Dock

30) Make The Dock Spring Loaded

Makes the dock spring loaded so you can open files or windows from within the dock.

defaults write com.apple.dock enable-spring-load-actions-on-all-items -boolean YES

31) Recent Applications Stack

This command creates a new stack in your dock so you can view the recently used Applications.

defaults write com.apple.dock persistent-others -array-add '{ 'tile-data' = { 'list-type' = 1; }; 'tile-type' = 'recents-tile'; }'

32) Change The Arrows In iTunes

Normally the arrows in iTunes link to the music store, adding this command enables you to search your library. You need to click on the song first for the arrows to appear.

defaults write com.apple.iTunes invertStoreLinks -bool YES

33) Pin The Dock To The Left

This command pins the dock to the left hand side of the screen. I’m not sure what happens if you have the dock on the left or right edge. Replace start with middle to revert.

defaults write com.apple.dock pinning -string start

34) Pin The Dock To The Right

Commandos 2 mac os

Exactly the same as above except it pins the dock to the right hand side of the screen.

defaults write com.apple.dock pinning -string end

35) Play Star Wars Episode IV


Using a simple telnet address you Terminal will connect in and play Star Wars Episode IV in its ASCII glory.

telnet towel.blinkenlights.nl

36) Quicklook A File

Quicklook is a great little application in Leopard. The command lets you quicklook a file right in Terminal. First you need to change the folder by using the “cd” command and then the folder you want. To enable this command to work you need to type the file name exactly.

qlmanage -p 'Jaguar Aqua Graphite.jpg'

37) Disable The Spotlight Icon

This command removes the spotlight icon. Type 755 to re-enable it, instead of 0.

sudo chmod 0 /System/Library/CoreServices/Spotlight.app
killall Spotlight

38) Remove The Stripes In List View

A simple hack that removes the alternating stripes in list view in finder.

defaults write com.apple.finder FXListViewStripes -bool FALSE
killall Finder

39) Turn The Menu Bar White

If you don’t like the menu bar in its cool transparent glory you can change it so it appears white. This requires a password and you will need to restart you mac.

sudo defaults write /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.WindowServer 'EnvironmentVariables' -dict 'CI_NO_BACKGROUND_IMAGE' 1

40) Turn The Menu Bar Grey

If you don’t like the white version of the menu bar you can change it so it appears gret.

Mac commands for terminal

sudo defaults write /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.WindowServer 'EnvironmentVariables' -dict 'CI_NO_BACKGROUND_IMAGE' 0

41) Revert The Menu Bar Back To Default

If you prefer the transparent menu bar and you want it back type the following into Terminal.

sudo defaults delete /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.WindowServer 'EnvironmentVariables'

42) Set The Expanded Print Dialogue As Default

If you want access to a lot of the extra print menus on by default you can use the following command to enable you to do this. Requires restart.

defaults write -g PMPrintingExpandedStateForPrint -bool TRUE

43) Set The Expanded Save Dialogue As Default

Similar as the print dialogue this sets the save dialogue to the expanded view as default. Requires restart.

defaults write -g NSNavPanelExpandedStateForSaveMode -bool TRUE

44) Set The Screen Saver As The Wallpaper


This command sets the currently selected screen saver as the desktop background. Use command + c or . to stop while in Terminal. Alternatively you can use wallsaver.

/System/Library/Frameworks/ScreenSaver.framework/Resources/ScreenSaverEngine.app/Contents/MacOS/ScreenSaverEngine -background

45) Set The History Limit In Safari To A Number Of Items

Commands For Mac Os

If you don’t want a massive history you can set it to a limited number of items. Change the number to suit.

Mac Commands For Terminal

defaults write com.apple.Safari WebKitHistoryItemLimit 2000

46) Set The History Limit In Safari To A Number Of Days

Similar to the hack above you can set the number of days Safari keeps its history.

defaults write com.apple.Safari WebKitHistoryAgeInDaysLimit 30

47) Show Hidden Files In Finder


A lot of the files in Finder are hidden. This is probably a wise choice by Apple as there are countless things you can screw up. But if you want to take a look at how many there are and what they are you can show them within Finder. Be careful as these files are needed by the system, if you screw something up don’t come complaining. Repeat the command with false to revert. The image above, click for larger version, show the amount of files there actually is, with these hidden there is only 4 shown normally.

defaults write com.apple.finder AppleShowAllFiles TRUE

48) Skip Disk Image Verification

If you want to save some time you can skip the disk image verification for a disk image. Potentially risky as a whole load of things could go wrong without you knowing.

com.apple.frameworks.diskimages skip-verify TRUE

49) Show SubFolders In Graphical Format In Terminal

This is a very cool little hack that enables you to show an ASCII graphical view of sub folders. Use the cd command to change to a directory other wise the command will list every folder. For more information look here.

ls -R grep ':$' sed -e 's/:$//' -e 's/[^-][^/]*//--/g' -e 's/^/ /' -e 's/-/ /'

50) Speed Up Dialogue Boxes

Most dialogue boxes have a cool animation effect that looks cool. If you want to speed this up you can change the speed at which is renders so it appears almost instantly. The default is 0.2.

defaults write NSGlobalDomain NSWindowResizeTime 0.01

Thats 50 top Terminal commands, I wanted to go to 100 but I couldn’t find 100 good commands. If you have any tips please leave a comment below explaining what the tips does and why you like it. If you just want to leave a comment you can, just be clear, since garbled comments are hard to understand.

If you want to take your skills with Terminal a bit further I recommend you check out the Terminal Category on this site. If you fancy reading a book there is a couple on Amazon that I regularly see mentioned and recommend, O’reilly Unix Geeks and Unix Under the Hood both are designed for Mac OS X and take Terminal further.


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